Science Journal of Public Health

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Parasitic, Fungal and Prions Zoonotic Diseases: A Public Health Nutrition Perspective and Policy Implication in Nigeria

Most of the communicable diseases in existence globally are zoonoses, hence, there is need to identify the benefits and demerits of these diseases for a better policy making and implementation towards improved public health. This is therefore a review of different parasitic, fungal and prions zoonotic diseases with emphasis on those that are food-borne with the identifiable pros and cons tailored towards policy implementation with a conceptual framework drawn out for Nigeria. The search engines accessed are: Google search, Google scholar, PubMed and HINARI. Zoonotic diseases can be classified based on the causative pathogens which are viruses, parasites, bacteria, fungi and prions. Some of the zoonotic diseases discussed are: Parasitic (African sleeping sickness, Angyostrongyliasis, Anisakiasis, Baylisascariasis or raccoon roundworm, Capillariasis, Parasitic eugenoids, Tapeworm or Taeniasis, Roundworm or Dirofilariasis, Echinococcosis or Platyhelminthes, Fasciolosis or Flatworm, Fasciolopsiasis, etc); Fungal (Cryptococcosis and Histoplasmosis); and Prions (Creutzfedt-Jacob disease). These diseases have associated merits and demerits. The pros as identified are: possibility of developing natural immunity against the disease in infected humans after recovery most especially in few viral zoonoses; outbreak of zoonosis may enforce proper channeling of resources for human benefits; outbreak of a zoonotic disease may also draw and command global attention to the endemic areas for aids; after an outbreak developed infrastructures, especially in the health sector, may be a trade off from an effective and prompt response to a zoonosis outbreak; there may exist a rapid concomitant technological and intellectual advancement due to the development of vaccines, drugs and other logistics to combat the disease as in the case of COVID-19. The cons are the ill health states which cause both measureable and non measureable reduction in quality of life, loss of lives and animals which are hazardous to human, animal and environmental sustainability, hence, a defective ecosystem that work against sustainable development. Zoonotic diseases are really with accompanied pros and cons which if properly considered and addressed may be helpful in adequate and effective policy making and implementation towards sustainable development.

Zoonoses, Public Health Nutrition, Policy Implication

APA Style

Paulina Oludoyin Adeniyi, Bassey Ekpenyong Anam. (2023). Parasitic, Fungal and Prions Zoonotic Diseases: A Public Health Nutrition Perspective and Policy Implication in Nigeria. Science Journal of Public Health, 11(5), 154-164.

ACS Style

Paulina Oludoyin Adeniyi; Bassey Ekpenyong Anam. Parasitic, Fungal and Prions Zoonotic Diseases: A Public Health Nutrition Perspective and Policy Implication in Nigeria. Sci. J. Public Health 2023, 11(5), 154-164. doi: 10.11648/j.sjph.20231105.12

AMA Style

Paulina Oludoyin Adeniyi, Bassey Ekpenyong Anam. Parasitic, Fungal and Prions Zoonotic Diseases: A Public Health Nutrition Perspective and Policy Implication in Nigeria. Sci J Public Health. 2023;11(5):154-164. doi: 10.11648/j.sjph.20231105.12

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Rahman T., Sobur A., Islam S., Ievy S., Hossain J., El Zowalaty M. E., Rahman AMM T., and Ashour H. M. (2020). Zoonotic Diseases: Etiology, Impact and Control. Microorganisms; 8 (9): 1405. Doi: 10.3390/microorganisms8091405.
2. CDC (2021). Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, National Centre for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).
3. WHO (2022). Trypanosomiasis, human African sleeping sickness. World Health Organization newsroom.
4. Turck H. C., Fox M. T. and Cowie R. H. (2022). Paratenic hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and their relation to human neuroangiostrongyliasis globally. One Health; 15: 100426
5. Khanna V. (2022). Angiostrongyliasis. In: Parija S. C. and Chandhury A.(eds.). Textbook of Parasitic Zoonoses. Microbial Zoonoses. Springer, Singapore. pp 487-496.
6. Hua L., Feng X., Jin-Bao G. and Xiao-Guang C. (2008). Case Report: A severe eosinophilic meningoencephlitis caused by infection of angiostrongylus cantonensis American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene; 79 (4): 568-570.
7. McCarthy K., Liu K., Kokame G. T., Merrill P. T., Gilca M. and Cohen J. (2021). First case of subretinal ocular angiostronguliasis associated with retinal detachment in the United States. Hawaii Journal of Health and Social Welfare; 80 (11 Suppl.3): 40-44.
8. Chase E. C., Ossiboff R. J., Farrell T. M., Childress A. L., Lykins K., Johnson S. A., Thompson N. and Walden H. D. S. (2022). Rat lungworm (Angiostrongylus cantonensis) in the invasive Cuban Treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) in Central Florida, USA. Journal of Wildlife Diseases; 58 (2): 454-456.
9. Jacob J., Steel A., Linz Z., Berger F., Zoeller K. and Jarvi S. (2022). Clinical efficacy and safety of Albendazole and other Benzimidazole anthelmintics for lungworm disease (Neuroangiostrongyliasis): a systematic analysis of clinical reports and animal studies. Clinical Infectious Diseases; 74 (7): 1293-1302.
10. Roquini D. B., Silver G. L., Ferreira L. L. G., Andricopulo A. D., Wilairatana P. and DeMoraes. (2022). Susceptibility of Angiostrongylus cantonensis larvae to anthelmintic drugs. Frontiers in Pharmacology; 13 (901459) doi: 10.3389/fphar.2022.901459.
11. Kojima H. (2023). Intestinal anisakiasis with small bowel obstruction following recurrent gastric anisakiasis. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences; 365 (3):
12. Audicana M. T. (2022). Anisakis, something is moving inside the fish. Pathogens; 11 (3): 326
13. Hussein D. E. E., Bessat M. and Elsenduong M. M. (2022). Relationship between the presence of Anisakis parasite in some local marine water fish flesh and some quality parameters in Alexandria governorate. Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences; 75 (1): 13-24.
14. A’yun N. Q., Syarifah R. F. and Murwantoko S. E. (2022). Anisakis infection of Belanger’s croaker (Johnius belangeri cuvier 1830) at the Indian ocean coast of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences; 15 (1): 29-36.
15. Fuentes M. V., Madrid E., Cuesta C., Gimeno C., Baquedano-Rodriguez M., Soriano-Sanchez I. et al. (2022). Anisakid nematodes and potential risk of human Anisaiasis through the consumption of Hake, Merluccins spp, sold fresh in Spanish supermarkets. Pathogens; 11 (6): 622
16. Aguilar-Marcelino L., Bautista-Garfias C. R., Zaheer T., Masqsood A., Salman S., Bamarniss I. et al. (2022). Potential of Anisakiasis in food borne zoonosis. Pakistan Veterinary Journal; 42 (4): 433-444.
17. Maas M., Tatem-Dokter R., Rijks J. M., Ilam-Deisz C., Franssen F., van Bolhuis H. et al. (2022). Population genetics invasion pathways and public health risks of the raccoon and its roundworm Baylisascaris procyonis in northwestern Europe. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases; 69 (4): 2191-2200.
18. Coyle C. M (2021). The returned traveler with neurologic manifestations: could my patient have a parasite? Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases; 34 (3): 245-254.
19. Gavin P. J., Kazacos K. R. and Shulman S. T. (2005). Baylisascariasis. Clinical Microbiology Reviews; 18 (4): 703-718.
20. Gaensbauer J. and Levin M. J. (2020). Infections: Parasitic and Mycotic. Current Diagnosis and Treatment Pediatrics (25th ed.), Mc-Graw Hill Education, New York.
21. Hochberg N. S. and Montgomery S. P. (2023). Chagas Disease. Annals of Internal Medicine
22. WHO (2019). Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis)
23. Montilla C. A. P., Moroni S., Moscatelli G., Rocco D. M., Gonzalez N., Altcheh J. and Bournissen F. G. (2023). Major benznidazole metabolites in patients treated for Chagas disease: mass spectrometry-based identification, structural analysis and detoxification pathways. Toxicology Letter
24. Khan S. M. and Witola W. H. (2023). Past, Current and potential treatment for cryptosporidiosis in humans and farm animals: A comprehensive review. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology; 13
25. Nematihonar B., Hosseini S. P. K. and Toutounchi A. H. (2023). Taenia saginata, the incidental find in case of intestinal perforation after blunt trauma and literature review. International Journal of Surgery Case Reports; 103: 107909
26. CDC (2020). Parasites-Taeniasis
27. Nyangi C., Stelzle D., Mkupasi E. M., Ngowi H. A., Churi A. J., Schmidt V., Mahonge C. and Winkler A. S. (2022). Knowledge, attitudes and practices related to Taenia solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. BMC Infectious Diseases; 22 (534)
28. Bitew B. G., Munganga J. M. and Hassan A. S. (2022). Mathematical modeling of echinococcosis in human, dogs and sheep with intervention. Journal of Biological Dynamics; 16 (1): 439-463.
29. Mukhopadhyay N. N. (2023). Echinococcosis: New perspectives. Inceboz T. (ed.). IntechOpen, London, UK doi: 10.5772/intecopen.109832.
30. WHO (2021). Echinococcosis. WHO Fact sheets
31. Israfulovich M. Z. and Usmonovich B. S. (2022). Conservative surgical tactics for hepatic echinococcosis. World Bulletin of Public Health; 9: 159-163.
32. Rizwan M., Khan M. R., Afzal M. S., Manahil H., Yasmeen S., Jabbar M., Irum S. et al. (2022). Prevalence of Facioliasis in livestock and humans in Pakistan: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease; 7 (7); 126
33. Prastowo J., Priyowidodo D., Sahara A., Nurcahyo W., Nugraheni Y. R. and Awaludin A. (2022). Molecular identification of cercaria Fasciola gigantic in lymnaeid snails in Kulon Progo, Yogyakarta. Veterinary Parasitology: Regional Studies Reports; 30: 100707
34. Alba A., Grech-Angelini S., Vazquez A. A., Alda P., Blin Q., Lemmonier L., et al. (2023). Fasciolosis in the Mediterranean island of Corsica (France); Insights from epidemiological and malacological investigations. Food and Waterborne Parasitology; 30: e00188
35. Gabriel S., Dorny P., Saelens G. and Dermauw V. (2023). Food borne parasites and their complex life cycles challenging food safety in different food chains. Foods; 12 (1): 142
36. Zarate-Rendon D. A., Briones-Montero A., Huaraca-Ore N. A., Veirano G. S., Levecke B. and Geldhof P. (2023). Comparison of the therapeutic efficacy of five anthelmintics against natural Fasciola hepatica infections in dairy cattle from the Mantaro Valley, Peru. Veterinary Parasitology: Regional Studies and Reports; 38: 100827
37. Saikia D., Prasad Y. K., Dahal S. and Ghatani S. (2022). Fasciolopsis buski detected in humans in Bihar and pigs in Assam, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases; 28 (6): 1265-1268.
38. Khalil G., Marty P., Hage K., Sfeir S., El-Hage J., Assi T. B., Rassam M. et al. (2022). Could the re-emerging practice of wild boar hunting linked to the recent economic crisis lead to new outbreaks of trichinellosis in Lebanon? Parasite; 29: 11 doi: 10.1051/parasite/2022011.
39. Yera H., Bory S., Khieu V. and Caron Y. (2022). Human trichinellosis in southeast Asia, 2001-2021. Food and Waterborne Parasitology; 28: e00171
40. Zhang X. Z., Wang Z. Q. and Cui J. (2022). Epidemiology of trichinellosis in the People’s Republic of China during 2009-2020. Acta Tropica; 229: 106388
41. Mohammed S. M. A. G., Taha A. A. R., Hamed E. F. A. and Fawzy E. M. (2022). Updated treatment modalities of Trichinellosis. The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine; 89 (2): 7680-7683.
42. Fantinatti M. M Goncalves-Pinto M. and Da-Cruz A. M. (2022). Can Giardia lamblia assemblages drive the clinical outcome of giardiasis? Current Tropical Medicine Reports; 9: 101-106.
43. Gabain I. L., Ramsteijn A. S. and Webster J. P. (2023). Parasites and childhood stunting- a mechanistic interplay with nutrition, anemia, gut health, microbiota and epigenetics. Trends in Parasitology; 39 (3): 167-180.
44. Li J., Qin H., Li X and Zhang L. (2023). Role of rodents in the zoonotic transmission of giardiasis. One Health; 16: 100500
45. Taghipour A., Sharbatkhori M., Tohidi F., Ghanbari M. R., Karanis P., Olfatifar M., et al. (2022). Global prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in cattle: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Preventive Veterinary Medicine; 203: 105632
46. Bourque D. L., Neumayr A., Libman M. and Chen L. H. (2022). Treatment strategies for nitroimidazole-refractory giardiasis: A systematic review. Journal of Travel Medicine; 29 (1): taab120
47. Bardhan A. (2023). Fish-borne parasites proficient in zoonotic diseases: a mini review. Insights in Veterinary Science; 6: 5-12.
48. Bapat A., Nickel B., Bray T. J. P., Abbasi M. and Stone N. R. H. (2022). Case Report: Gnathostomiasis acquired in Costa Rica in a returning traveler to the United Kingdom. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene; 106 (4): 1263-1264.
49. Ziarati M., Zorriehzahra M., Hassantabar F., Mehrabi Z., Dhawan M. and Sharun K. (2022). Zoonotic diseases of fish and their prevention and control. Veterinary Quarterly; 42 (1): 95-118.
50. Kanjanapruthipong T., Ampawong S., Thaenkham U., Tuentam K. and Watthana K. D. (2022). Survival of immature pre-adult Gnathostoma spinigerum in humans after treatment with albendazole. PLOS ONE; 17 (3): e0264766
51. Patterson J. (2023). Toxocariasis in humans: how much of a problem is it in the UK? Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin; 61 (1):
52. Wygant C. M. and Cohle S. D. (2023). Fatal visceral larva migrans from Toxocara catis infection of the heart and liver in a child. Cardiovascular Pathology; 63: 107496
53. Zibaei M., Mahdavi F. S., Firoozeh F., Hamidreza H. and Saeed B. (2022). Ocular Toxocariasis associated with blurred vision and visual impairment: report of four cases. Iranian Journal of Parasitology; 17 (1): 118-123.
54. Phoosangwalthong P., Luong N. H., Wongwigkan J., Kamyingkird K., Phasuk J., Pattanatanang K., et al. (2022). Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati in stray dogs and cats in Bangkok, Thailand: molecular prevalence and risk factors. Parasitologia; 2 (2): 88-94.
55. Avila H. G., Sandon L., Anes P. E., Meli S. A., Giboin G. A., Perez V. M. and Periago M. V. (2023). Environmental Toxocara spp. presence in crowded squares and public parks from San Juan Province, Argentina: A call for a ‘One Health’ approach. Frontiers in Medicine doi: 10.3389/fmed.2023.1102396.
56. Alkubaisi S. A. M. and Al-Zubaidy I. A-H. S. (2023). Epidemiological study on Toxoplasmosis in cat, healthy and contact human in Al-Anbar Governorate. The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine; 90 (1): 518-521.
57. Tong W. H., Hlavacova J., Abdulai-Saiku S., Kankova S., Flegr J. and Vyas A. (2023). Presence of Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts in human semen: Toxoplasmosis as a potential sexually transmissible infection. Journal of Infection; 86 (1): 60-65.
58. Omonijo A. O. and Mukaratirwa S. (2023). Knowledge and practices on consumption of free range chickens in selected rural communities of Kwa-Zulu-Natal, South Africa, with focus on zoonotic transmission of Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara spp. Tropical Animal Health and Production; 55 (9):
59. Hosseini S. A., Sharif M., Sarvi S., Mirzaei N., Abediankenari S., Arefkhah N., Amouei A. et al. (2023). Identification and multilocus genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from congenital infection in north of Iran. Parasitology Research; 122 (1): 177-184.
60. Kuruca L., Belluco S., Vieira-Pinto M., Antic D. and Blagojevic B. (2023). Current control options and a way towards risk-based control of Toxoplasma gondii in the meat chain. Food Control; 146: 109556,2022.109556.
61. Murley A. G., Nie Y., Golder Z., Keogh M. J., Smith C., Ironside J. W. and Chinnery P. F. (2023). High-depth PRNP sequencing in brains with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. Neurology Genetics; 9 (1):
62. Rajalingam P., de Souza A. and Dhakal M. (2023). Case series of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Northern Tasmania. Journal of Royal College Physicians of Edinburgh
63. Tam J., Centola J., Kurudzhu H., Watson H., Mackenzie J., Leitch M., et al. (2023). Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in the young (50 and below): 10 year review of United Kingdom surveillance. Journal of Neurology; 270: 1036-1046.
64. Konold T., Arnold M. and Adkin A. (2023). Prions: detection of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and links to variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. In: Present Knowledge on Food Safety- A risk based approach through the food chain. Academic Press, USA. pp 737-751
65. Van Meter D. S. and Van Horn C. E. (1975). The policy implementation process: A conceptual framework. Administration and Society; 6 (4):