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Research Article |

Prevalence and Predictors of Substance Use Among Senior High School Students: An Institution-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Ghana

Introduction: Substance use among senior high school students in Ghana has been on the increase. While various studies have investigated the topic, studies that examine the issue in high schools in coastal Ghana are scarce. Also, the relationship between the use of the three most common substances—alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana—is essentially an open question. This study examines the prevalence of substance use among senior high school students in a coast population in Ghana. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 405 senior high school students. Data was collected using a self-administered, structured questionnaire via a multistage sampling process. The data was entered, cleaned, coded, and analyzed using SPSS. Pearson Chi-square test was used to determine the association between the independent and dependent variables, and a multiple logistic regression established the strength of the explanatory variables in predicting the outcomes. Associations were significant at p < 0.05. Results: The lifetime prevalence and current prevalence of alcohol consumption were 64.8% and 26.8%, respectively. The lifetime and current prevalence of cigarette smoking were 12.2%, respectively. Regarding marijuana use, the lifetime prevalence was 9.1%, and the current prevalence was 6.3%. Household head (s) [AOR=3.53, 95% CI=1.24, 10.03] and lifetime cigarette smoking predicted alcohol consumption [AOR=5.72, 95% CI=1.50, 21.76]. Religion [AOR=7.19, 95% CI=1.21, 42.58], lifetime alcohol consumption [AOR=5.73, 95% CI=1.51, 21.83], and lifetime marijuana use predicted cigarette smoking [AOR=23.95, 95% CI=8.00, 71.66]. School residency status [AOR=0.15, 95% CI=0.05, 0.47], religion [AOR=6.99, 95% CI=1.07, 45.84], home residency [AOR=12.61, 95% CI=3.07, 51.88], and lifetime cigarette smoking [AOR=25.07, 95% CI=8.00, 78.60] predicted marijuana use. Conclusion: A substantial proportion of the students engage in underage drinking and smoking. The use of marijuana, an illicit substance, is notable. Policymakers should act proactively to prevent an impending public health and legal crisis among senior high school students.

Substance Use, High School, Prevalence, Predictors, Ghana

APA Style

Aidam, K., Awo Adawudu, E. (2023). Prevalence and Predictors of Substance Use Among Senior High School Students: An Institution-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Ghana. Science Journal of Public Health, 11(6), 186-194.

ACS Style

Aidam, K.; Awo Adawudu, E. Prevalence and Predictors of Substance Use Among Senior High School Students: An Institution-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Ghana. Sci. J. Public Health 2023, 11(6), 186-194. doi: 10.11648/j.sjph.20231106.11

AMA Style

Aidam K, Awo Adawudu E. Prevalence and Predictors of Substance Use Among Senior High School Students: An Institution-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Ghana. Sci J Public Health. 2023;11(6):186-194. doi: 10.11648/j.sjph.20231106.11

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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