Volume 3, Issue 4, July 2015, Page: 487-499
Pictures Don’t Lie
Norman Ishmael D., School of Public Health, (Hohoe campus) University of Health and Allied Sciences Ho, Volta Region, Ghana; Institute for Security, Disaster and Emergency Studies Sandpiper Place, Langma, Central Region, Ghana
Binka Fred Newton, University of Health and Allied Sciences Ho, Volta Region, Dept. of Epidemiology and Disease Control, Ghana
Norvivor Forgive Awo, School of Public Health, (Hohoe campus) University of Health and Allied Sciences Ho, Volta Region, Ghana, Dept. of Epidemiology and Disease Control
Received: Apr. 22, 2015;       Accepted: May 18, 2015;       Published: May 29, 2015
DOI: 10.11648/j.sjph.20150304.16      View  4364      Downloads  107
Ghana is confronted with persistent environmental challenges such as its inability to re-cycle its domestic and industrial waste. Ghana has no adequate waste treatment plant in any of its leading cities or towns and a general lack of best environmental practices, although there are currently plans to install state of the art waste management plant in the capital city. The Central Government does not adequately resource the municipal governments with the constitutionally allocable portions from the centrally planned budget to be able to provide services such as sanitation, refuse collection, road maintenance and related functions to improve the health of the environment and thus the communities. The public-private-partnership meant to supplement municipal environmental waste and sanitation management has been co-opted by central government operatives so much so that they appear as if they are inseparable and integral part of the municipal governments. Due to such close association and other systemic failures, the public-private-partnership in the industry is fraught with allegations of cronyism, renting seeking behaviors, and sweet-heart arrangements. As a result, the arrangements do not function efficiently or effectively, except in very limited city spaces in the central business districts and neighborhoods with large expatriate presences together with high ranking government functionaries. Generally, the public health of the population is compromised. The lack of good programs and operations in Ghana’s environmental practices has led to the outbreak of diseases such as malaria and cholera resulting in morbidity and mortality among the population on a yearly basis. Cholera, an internationally reported disease, is a significant killer in Ghana today. In many nations in the 21st Century, this disease does not even feature in the list of threats to the health of the public. Malaria continues to be a major public health saboteur disease. There appears to be official denial about the lack of real improvements towards the Millennium Development Goal 7. This paper attempts to provide photographic evidence about the situation on the ground in the capital city of Ghana, Accra; and to raise the alarm that the veracity of Ghana about its progress towards MDG 7 may be in serious doubt.
Millennium Development Goal, Public-Private-Partnership, Sanitation, Refuse Collection, Environment
To cite this article
Norman Ishmael D., Binka Fred Newton, Norvivor Forgive Awo, Pictures Don’t Lie, Science Journal of Public Health. Vol. 3, No. 4, 2015, pp. 487-499. doi: 10.11648/j.sjph.20150304.16
Christenson, S. C. & Cozzarelli I. M. (2003). The Norman Landfill Environmental Research Site: What Happens to the Waste in Landfills? U. S. Geological Survey,
Vordzorgbe, S.D., Bhavnani, R. Owor, M., et al, 2008, Report on the Status of Disaster Risk Reduction in the Sub-Saharan African Region, Commission of the African Union, UN/ISDR, World Bank., pp.1-84
UNISDR (United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction) (2013). Annual Report 2012, UNISDR, Geneva
UNISDR (United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction) (2013). Annual Report 2012. UNISDR, Geneva.
UNISDR (United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction) (2013). Synthesis Report: Consultations on a Post-2015 Framework on Disaster Risk Reduction (HFA2), Geneva
UNISDR (United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction) (2013). Implementing the HyogoFramework for Action in Europe; Regional Synthesis Report 2011-2013. UNISDR, Geneva
Boadi, K. O. & Kuitunen M. (2005). Environmental Health Impacts of Household Solid Waste Handling and Disposal Practices in Third World Cities: The case of the Accra Metropolitan Area, Ghana. Journal of Environmental Health, Vol. 68. 32-35
Winslow, C. E. A (1920). The untilled fields of public health. Science, New Series, Yale University 51 (1306): 23-33
Ofori Adjei D. and Koram K. (2014). Editorial Commentary of cholera and Ebola Virus Disease. Ghana medical Journal. Vol. 48(3), pp120.
Norman I. D and Binka F. N. (2015). Leadership abilities, skills and knowledge in building Disaster Resilience and Response Issues in Business Management and Economics Vol.3 (3), pp. 44-58, March 2015
Amoah, S. T. & Kosoe, E. A. (2014) Solid Waste management in Urban Areas of Ghana: Issues and Experiences from Wa. Journal of Environmental Pollution and Human Health. Vol. 2, No. 5, 110-117
Cozzarelli, I. M, Suflita, J. M, Ulrich, G. A, Harris, S. H. Scholl, M. A, Schlottmann, J. L, and Christenson, S. (2000). Geochemical and microbiological methods for evelauting anaerobic processes in an aquifer contaminated by landfill leachate, Environmental Science and Technology, v. 34, p. 4025-4033
Osei, F.B. and Duker A. A. (2008). Spatial and demographic patterns of cholera in the Ashanti Region-Ghana. International Journal of Health Geographics. Vol. 7:44
Scholl, M.A., Cozzarelli, I.M., Christenson, S.C., Istok, J., Jaeschke, J., Ferree, D.M., and Senko, J., (2001). Measuring variability of in-situ biodegradation rates in a heterogeneous aquifer contaminated by landfill leachate: EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, v. 82, no. 20, May 15, 2001, p. 146.
Istok, J.D., Humphrey, M.D., Schroth, M.H., Hyman, M.R., and O'Reilly, K.T., (1997), Single-well, "push-pull" test for in situ determination of microbial activities: Ground Water, v. 35, no. 4, p. 619-631.
Daily Graphic 2015:23/1/15. Queen mother takes cleanliness campaign to Agbogbloshie
JICA, Country Profile on Environment Ghana, 11/1999. Japan International Cooperative Agency, pg 16
Accra Metropolitan Assembly (AMA) (2000). Performance audit report of the Auditor-General on solid waste management
Donkor, A. K., Nartey V. K., Bonzongo J. C. and Adotey D. K. (2006). Artisanal Mining of Gold with Mercury in Ghana. West Africal Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol.9:2-8
Adimado, A.A. and Baah, D.A. (2002). Mercury in human blood, urine, hair, nails, and fish from the Ankobra and Tano River Basins in southwestern Ghana. Environmental Contamination and toxicology. Vol. 68: 339-346
Murphy, T.P., Irvine, K.N., Sampson, M. and Parr, T. (2008). Mercury Contamination along the Mekong River, Cambodia. Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution, Vol. 6, No.1, pp. 1-9.
FAO (Food and agriculture Organization) (2001). Forest Resources Assessment 2000, Rome.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) (2003). The State of Food Insecurity in the World. Rome:
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) (2004). The state of food insecurity in the world. Rome:
FAO (2013) Fishery Harbor Manual on the Prevention of Pollution – Bay of Bengal Program. Fisheries and Aquaculture Department
Angotti, Tom, Rethinking Environmental Impact Statement 6:2006, Gotham Gazette, New York
Darko, E.O. and Fletcher J.J. (1998). National waste management infrastructure in Ghana. Journal of Radiological Protection. Vol. 18: 293.
Dempouo, D.L., 1 Bradford, D.G., Ondobo A. G. and Mballa, G. A. E. (2013). National Surveillance Data on the Epidemiology of Cholera in Cameroon. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. Vol. 208(S1):S92–7
Bataringaya, A. (2007). Analysis of Quality Deterioration at Critical steps points in fish handling in Uganda and Iceland and suggestions for improvement. Fish Training Program, the United Nations University
Norman ID; Alhassan O; Zotor F; Derbile EK; Cudjoe F; Sahnoon M and Awiah BM. (2013). Ghana Report on Urbanization and Climate Change: The case of Ho, Tamale, Ashaiman and Sodom & Gomorrah. RILab, West Africa Region, ResilientAfrica Network, University of Health and Allied Sciences, PMB 31, Ho, Volta Region
Ghana Statistical Service, Ghana Health Service (GHS), and ICF Macro (2008). Ghana Demographic and Health Survey
WHO/IDRC/FAO project Report of the first, second and third consultative workshop on the “non-treatment options for safe wastewater use in poor urban communities.
UNICEF, Camel Kar, (2011) Community Led Total Sanitation, UNICEF HQ, New York, NY
Browse journals by subject